Frances Muncaster: From socialite to wilderness woman

She was an American woman who gave up the life of high society, comfort and privilege to live the tough life of a miner in the wilds of the Yukon and northern British Columbia.

She was an American woman who gave up the life of high society, comfort and privilege to live the tough life of a miner in the wilds of the Yukon and northern British Columbia.

The lives of women of the late Victorian era were circumscribed by a multitude of social customs and constraints. They were certainly not considered to be up to the rigours of wilderness life. Yet there were a few who defied conventions of the time and proved they were as capable of meeting the challenge as any man.

Frances Muncaster was one of these women. She was born Arabelle Frances Patchen in St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1874. Her family moved to Spokane, Washington, when she was 12 years old, then on to Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, a year later. She was only eighteen years old when she married Samuel Allen, a prominent older prosecuting attorney in Spokane in 1892 and became “an ornament to Spokane society.”

In her early days as a trophy wife, she was elegantly attired in fashionable gowns. Later, as a seasoned veteran of the North, she was attired in the rough and ready garb of the outdoors.

She might have lived in comfort for the rest of her years had she not participated in a charity fund raiser and scandalized her husband by riding bareback into the arena wearing a fluffy, pale blue knee-length skirt over pink tights. After only three years of marriage, Belle Frances Allen moved on. Two years later the couple was divorced.

The attractive, petite woman had a magnetic attraction to men and one of them, Thomas Noyes, the son of a Montana mining tycoon, married her. Like thousands of others, the newlyweds headed for the Klondike, spending a winter in Skagway, followed by prospecting at the foot of a glacier and ultimately arriving in Nome in 1900.

Unlike many others, Frances Noyes and her husband stayed in the north, in a full partnership, becoming involved in numerous ventures with varying success. At one time, Frances was the toast of Monte Carlo, but eventually they were wiped out financially, leaving only memories of “perilous trips, lost trails, and climbs over glaciers.”

They adopted a half-Inuk girl named Bonnie in 1905. In 1914, they stampeded to the Chisana region along the Alaska-Yukon border hoping to recover their fortunes, but met only failure. Tom died of pneumonia in 1916.

Frances, now a widow in her forties, remained in Alaska, managing a cannery store where a man 15 years her junior fell in love with her. In June of 1919, she married Bill Muncaster, a surveyor.

For their honeymoon, they set off with their daughter Bonnie over two glaciers to the head of the White River through deep snows and temperatures so low that the mercury had retreated into the bulb. They spent that winter and following summer in a cabin on Wellesley Lake, hunting, fishing and gardening. When they left, she wrote in her diary: “Thus ends my year in the interior and happiness.”

Her husband Bill once wrote in admiration that “Have seen her day after day cover 20 to 25 miles on snow shoes (and she) just took it like an ever(y) day chore.” At a time when other women would be thinking of relaxing, Frances Muncaster was only just beginning her adventures.

On one trip driving horses from Wellesley Lake to Burwash in 1923, her adoring husband said “it was (so) cold our thermometer went to the bulb at 56 below and stayed there for some ten day(s). But we had to keep going for we were out there us two 100 mile(s) or so from nowhere but she loved it.” For years, they continued their quest for gold in the southwest Yukon.

In 1927, now in her fifties, she and Bill were in Washington state, but she yearned to be back in the North. While visiting the Muncaster family in Seattle, Frances was overheard by a nephew having a conversation in the next room with her husband. She was crying and saying that she wanted to go back north, and he promised to do so as soon as they had a grubstake together.

When word reached her through the moccasin telegraph in 1927 of gold being discovered by Paddy Duncan at Squaw Creek on the Alaska-British Columbia border, she immediately set off on her own to seek fortune, with husband Bill following soon after.

She staked a claim on Squaw Creek and she was soon appointed as the mining recorder for the district. She and Bill continued to mine for the next 20 years.

Her nephew described their trip back to Squaw Creek in 1928: they relayed their supplies by dog team, caching their gear, and then back tracking through the snows to bring in the next load. They were attacked by wolves, tracked by wolverines, and when it became too warm during the day to travel through the melting snows, they waited till the cool of the evening to travel over the frozen snow crust.

When her husband, bringing supplies by horse joined them, they crossed the swollen Tatshenshini River by holding on to their horses’ tails for dear life.

They recovered $35 in gold per day at Squaw Creek, but due to the high cost of goods in this remote region, this was only enough to carry them from one year to the next.

Author Madge Mandy described their encounter in the early 1930’s: “She looked beyond middle age….with silvered brown hair and a very feminine fragile appearance. Her pretty face was lined with character and her outgoing personality had warmth like a friendly embrace.”

At age 60, she was teaching a younger man how to pack supplies by dog team from Haines to Squaw Creek through the thawing snows of the Chilkat summit. But as the years advanced, her energy diminished and her mining trips became shorter and less arduous. She died of a heart attack at Haines, Alaska, at age 78 in 1952 after a remarkable life.

Hers was a life of rebellion and adventure in which she overcame numerous hardships. Hers is also the story of the men she loved, and who loved her, and the passion for mining. For miners are all dreamers.

Michael Gates is a Yukon historian and sometimes adventurer based in Whitehorse. He is currently writing a book on the Yukon in World War I. You can contact him at

Get local stories you won't find anywhere else right to your inbox.
Sign up here

Just Posted

The new Yukon Liberal caucus poses for a photo during the swearing-in ceremony held on May 3. (Yukon Government/Submitted)
Liberal cabinet sworn in at legislature before house resumes on May 11

Newly elected MLA Jeremy Harper has been nominated as speaker.


Wyatt’s World for May 5, 2021.… Continue reading

Crystal Schick/Yukon News Premier Sandy Silver, left, and Yukon’s Chief Medical Officer of Health Dr. Brendan Hanley speak at a COVID-19 update press conference in Whitehorse on Nov. 19. They formally announced that as of Nov. 20, anyone entering the territory (including Yukoners returning home) would be required to self-isolate with the exception of critical service workers, those exercising treaty rights and those living in B.C. border towns
Vaccinated people won’t have to self-isolate in the Yukon after May 25

Restaurants and bars will also be able to return to full capacity at the end of the month.

An RV pulls into Wolf Creek Campground to enjoy the first weekend of camping season on April 30, 2021. John Tonin/Yukon News
Opening weekend of Yukon campgrounds a ‘definite success’

The territorial campgrounds opened on April 30. Wolf Creek was the busiest park seeing 95 per cent of sites filled.

The site of the Old Crow solar project photographed on Feb. 20. The Vuntut Gwitchin solar project was planned for completion last summer, but delays related to the COVID-19 pandemic pushed it back. (Haley Ritchie/Yukon News)
Old Crow is switching to solar

The first phase of the community’s solar array is already generating power.

Chief Medical Officer of Health Dr. Brendan Hanley. (Crystal Schick/Yukon News file)
One new case of COVID-19 in the Yukon

Case number 82 is the territory’s only active case

Flood and fire risk and potential were discussed April 29. Yukoners were told to be prepared in the event of either a flood or a fire. Submitted Photo/B.C. Wildfire Service
Yukoners told to be prepared for floods and wildland fire season

Floods and fire personelle spoke to the current risks of both weather events in the coming months.

From left to right, Pascale Marceau and Eva Capozzola departed for Kluane National Park on April 12. The duo is the first all-woman expedition to summit Mt. Lucania. (Michael Schmidt/Icefield Discovery)
First all-woman team summits Mt. Lucania

“You have gifted us with a magical journey that we will forever treasure.”

Whitehorse City Hall (Yukon News file)
City news, briefly

Whitehorse goings-on for the week of April 26

The Yukon Department of Education in Whitehorse on Dec. 22, 2020. The department has announced new dates for the 2021/2022 school year. (John Hopkins-Hill/Yukon News file)
Yukon school dates set for 2021/22

The schedule shows classes starting on Aug. 23, 2021 for all Whitehorse schools and in some communities.

Letters to the editor.
Today’s mailbox: rent caps and vaccines

To Sandy Silver and Kate White Once again Kate White and her… Continue reading

Most Read